Journal of Medical Physics
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   2015| April-June  | Volume 40 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 12, 2015

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Small fields measurements with radiochromic films
Antonio Gonzalez-Lopez, Juan-Antonio Vera-Sanchez, Jose-Domingo Lago-Martin
April-June 2015, 40(2):61-67
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158667  PMID:26170551
The small fields in radiotherapy are widely used due to the development of techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy and stereotactic radio surgery. The measurement of the dose distributions for small fields is a challenge. A perfect dosimeter should be independent of the radiation energy and the dose rate and should have a negligible volume effect. The radiochromic (RC) film characteristics fit well to these requirements. However, the response of RC films and their digitizing processes present a significant spatial inhomogeneity problem. The present work uses a method for two-dimensional (2D) measurement with RC films based on the reduction of the spatial inhomogeneity of both the film and the film digitizing process. By means of registering and averaging several measurements of the same field, the inhomogeneities are mostly canceled. Measurements of output factors (OFs), dose profiles (in-plane and cross-plane), and 2D dose distributions are presented. The field sizes investigated are 0.5 × 0.5 cm 2 , 0.7 × 0.7 cm 2 , 1 × 1 cm 2 , 2 × 2 cm 2 , 3 × 3 cm 2 , 6 × 6 cm 2 , and 10 × 10 cm 2 for 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The OFs measured with the RC film are compared with the measurements carried out with a PinPoint ionization chamber (IC) and a Semiflex IC, while the measured transversal dose profiles were compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained for the OFs measurements show a good agreement with the values obtained from RC films and the PinPoint and Semiflex chambers when the field size is greater or equal than 2 × 2 cm 2 . These agreements give confidence on the accuracy of the method as well as on the results obtained for smaller fields. Also, good agreement was found between the measured profiles and the Monte Carlo calculated profiles for the field size of 1 × 1 cm 2 . We expect, therefore, that the presented method can be used to perform accurate measurements of small fields.
  2,982 282 -
Development and validation of MCNPX-based Monte Carlo treatment plan verification system
Iraj Jabbari, Shahram Monadi
April-June 2015, 40(2):80-89
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158678  PMID:26170554
A Monte Carlo treatment plan verification (MCTPV) system was developed for clinical treatment plan verification (TPV), especially for the conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. In the MCTPV, the MCNPX code was used for particle transport through the accelerator head and the patient body. MCTPV has an interface with TiGRT planning system and reads the information which is needed for Monte Carlo calculation transferred in digital image communications in medicine-radiation therapy (DICOM-RT) format. In MCTPV several methods were applied in order to reduce the simulation time. The relative dose distribution of a clinical prostate conformal plan calculated by the MCTPV was compared with that of TiGRT planning system. The results showed well implementation of the beams configuration and patient information in this system. For quantitative evaluation of MCTPV a two-dimensional (2D) diode array (MapCHECK2) and gamma index analysis were used. The gamma passing rate (3%/3 mm) of an IMRT plan was found to be 98.5% for total beams. Also, comparison of the measured and Monte Carlo calculated doses at several points inside an inhomogeneous phantom for 6- and 18-MV photon beams showed a good agreement (within 1.5%). The accuracy and timing results of MCTPV showed that MCTPV could be used very efficiently for additional assessment of complicated plans such as IMRT plan.
  2,949 198 -
Dosimetric verification of gated delivery of electron beams using a 2D ion chamber array
SA Yoganathan, KJ Maria Das, D Gowtham Raj, Shaleen Kumar
April-June 2015, 40(2):68-73
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158671  PMID:26170552
The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics; such as beam output, symmetry and flatness between gated and non-gated electron beams. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery was carried for all electron beams available on Varian CL 2100CD medical linear accelerator. Measurements were conducted for three dose rates (100 MU/min, 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min) and two respiratory motions (breathing period of 4s and 8s). Real-time position management (RPM) system was used for the gated deliveries. Flatness and symmetry values were measured using Imatrixx 2D ion chamber array device and the beam output was measured using plane parallel ion chamber. These detector systems were placed over QUASAR motion platform which was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion of target. The dosimetric characteristics of gated deliveries were compared with non-gated deliveries. The flatness and symmetry of all the evaluated electron energies did not differ by more than 0.7 % with respect to corresponding non-gated deliveries. The beam output variation of gated electron beam was less than 0.6 % for all electron energies except for 16 MeV (1.4 %). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that Varian CL2100 CD is well suitable for gated delivery of non-dynamic electron beams.
  2,481 315 -
Fast and accurate Monte Carlo modeling of a kilovoltage X-ray therapy unit using a photon-source approximation for treatment planning in complex media
B Zeinali-Rafsanjani, MA Mosleh-Shirazi, R Faghihi, S Karbasi, A Mosalaei
April-June 2015, 40(2):74-79
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158676  PMID:26170553
To accurately recompute dose distributions in chest-wall radiotherapy with 120 kVp kilovoltage X-rays, an MCNP4C Monte Carlo model is presented using a fast method that obviates the need to fully model the tube components. To validate the model, half-value layer (HVL), percentage depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles were measured. Dose measurements were performed for a more complex situation using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) placed within a Rando phantom. The measured and computed first and second HVLs were 3.8, 10.3 mm Al and 3.8, 10.6 mm Al, respectively. The differences between measured and calculated PDDs and beam profiles in water were within 2 mm/2% for all data points. In the Rando phantom, differences for majority of data points were within 2%. The proposed model offered an approximately 9500-fold reduced run time compared to the conventional full simulation. The acceptable agreement, based on international criteria, between the simulations and the measurements validates the accuracy of the model for its use in treatment planning and radiobiological modeling studies of superficial therapies including chest-wall irradiation using kilovoltage beam.
  2,388 187 -
Photo neutron dose equivalent rate in 15 MV X-ray beam from a Siemens Primus Linac
A Ghasemi, T Allahverdi Pourfallah, MR Akbari, H Babapour, M Shahidi
April-June 2015, 40(2):90-94
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158681  PMID:26170555
Fast and thermal neutron fluence rates from a 15 MV X-ray beams of a Siemens Primus Linac were measured using bare and moderated BF 3 proportional counter inside the treatment room at different locations. Fluence rate values were converted to dose equivalent rate (DER) utilizing conversion factors of American Association of Physicist in Medicine's (AAPM) report number 19. For thermal neutrons, maximum and minimum DERs were 3.46 × 10 -6 (3 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size) and 8.36 × 10 -8 Sv/min (in maze, 40 × 40 field size), respectively. For fast neutrons, maximum DERs using 9" and 3" moderators were 1.6 × 10 -5 and 1.74 × 10 -5 Sv/min (2 m from isocenter in +Y direction, 0 × 0 field size), respectively. By changing the field size, the variation in thermal neutron DER was more than the fast neutron DER and the changes in fast neutron DER were not significant in the bunker except inside the radiation field. This study showed that at all points and distances, by decreasing field size of the beam, thermal and fast neutron DER increases and the number of thermal neutrons is more than fast neutrons.
  2,126 200 -
Absorbed dose assessment of 177 Lu-zoledronate and 177 Lu-EDTMP for human based on biodistribution data in rats
Hassan Yousefnia, Samaneh Zolghadri, Amir Reza Jalilian
April-June 2015, 40(2):102-108
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158694  PMID:26170557
Over the past few decades, several bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals including various bisphosphonate ligands and β-emitting radionuclides have been developed for bone pain palliation. Recently, 177 Lu was successfully labeled with zoledronic acid ( 177 Lu-ZLD) as a new generation potential bisphosphonate and demonstrated significant accumulation in bone tissue. In this work, the absorbed dose to each organ of human for 177 Lu-ZLD and 177 Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid ( 177 Lu-EDTMP;as the only clinically bone pain palliation agent) was investigated based on biodistribution data in rats by medical internal radiation dosimetry (MIRD) method. 177 Lu-ZLD and 177 Lu-EDTMP were prepared in high radiochemical purity (>99%, instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC)) at the optimized condition. The biodistribution of the complexes demonstrated fast blood clearance and major accumulation in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for both 177 Lu-ZLD and 177 Lu-EDTMP is observed in trabecular bone surface with 12.173 and 10.019 mSv/MBq, respectively. The results showed that 177 Lu-ZLD has better characteristics compared to 177 Lu-EDTMP and can be a good candidate for bone pain palliation.
  1,782 157 -
Modulation expression of tumor necrosis factor α in the radiation-induced lung injury by glycyrrhizic acid
Soheila Refahi, Masoud Pourissa, Mohammad Reza Zirak, GholamHassan Hadadi
April-June 2015, 40(2):95-101
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158689  PMID:26170556
To evaluate the ability of glycyrrhizic acid (GLA) to reduce the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), release on messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein production in the lungs using GLA in response to irradiation were studied. The animals were divided into four groups: No treatment (NT group), GLA treatment only (GLA group), irradiation only (XRT group), and GLA treatment plus irradiation (GLA/XRT group). Rats were killed at different time points. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the lungs (compared with non-irradiated lungs). An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) assay was used to measure the TNF-α protein level. The TNF-α mRNA expression in the lungs of the XRT rats was clearly higher at all-time points compared to the NT rats. The TNF-α mRNA expression in the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats was lower at all-time points compared to the XRT rats. Release of the TNF-α on protein level in the lungs of the XRT rats increased at all-time points compared to the NT rats. In contrast to the XRT rats, the lungs of the GLA/XRT rats revealed a reduction on TNF-α protein level at 6 h after irradiation. This study has clearly showed the immediate down-regulation of the TNF-α mRNA and protein production in the lungs using GLA in response to irradiation.
  1,599 159 -
Comparison of electromagnetic and hadronic models generated using Geant 4 with antiproton dose measured in CERN
Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli, Reza Reiazi, Mohammad Mehdi Mohammadi, Keyvan Jabbari
April-June 2015, 40(2):109-114
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158696  PMID:26170558
After proposing the idea of antiproton cancer treatment in 1984 many experiments were launched to investigate different aspects of physical and radiobiological properties of antiproton, which came from its annihilation reactions. One of these experiments has been done at the European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN using the antiproton decelerator. The ultimate goal of this experiment was to assess the dosimetric and radiobiological properties of beams of antiprotons in order to estimate the suitability of antiprotons for radiotherapy. One difficulty on this way was the unavailability of antiproton beam in CERN for a long time, so the verification of Monte Carlo codes to simulate antiproton depth dose could be useful. Among available simulation codes, Geant4 provides acceptable flexibility and extensibility, which progressively lead to the development of novel Geant4 applications in research domains, especially modeling the biological effects of ionizing radiation at the sub-cellular scale. In this study, the depth dose corresponding to CERN antiproton beam energy by Geant4 recruiting all the standard physics lists currently available and benchmarked for other use cases were calculated. Overall, none of the standard physics lists was able to draw the antiproton percentage depth dose. Although, with some models our results were promising, the Bragg peak level remained as the point of concern for our study. It is concluded that the Bertini model with high precision neutron tracking (QGSP_BERT_HP) is the best to match the experimental data though it is also the slowest model to simulate events among the physics lists.
  1,357 94 -
Estimation of dose reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Kerala, India
A Saravanakumar, K Vaideki, KN Govindarajan, S Jayakumar, B Devanand
April-June 2015, 40(2):115-119
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.158701  PMID:26170559
  1,271 121 -
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