Journal of Medical Physics
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   2014| January-March  | Volume 39 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 20, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Reduction of radiation risks in patients undergoing some X-ray examinations by using optimal projections: A Monte Carlo program-based mathematical calculation
A Chaparian, A Kanani, M Baghbanian
January-March 2014, 39(1):32-39
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125500  PMID:24600170
The objectives of this paper were calculation and comparison of the effective doses, the risks of exposure-induced cancer, and dose reduction in the gonads for male and female patients in different projections of some X-ray examinations. Radiographies of lumbar spine [in the eight projections of anteroposterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), right lateral (RLAT), left lateral (LLAT), right anterior-posterior oblique (RAO), left anterior-posterior oblique (LAO), right posterior-anterior oblique (RPO), and left posterior-anterior oblique (LPO)], abdomen (in the two projections of AP and PA), and pelvis (in the two projections of AP and PA) were investigated. A solid-state dosimeter was used for the measuring of the entrance skin exposure. A Monte Carlo program was used for calculation of effective doses, the risks of radiation-induced cancer, and doses to the gonads related to the different projections. Results of this study showed that PA projection of abdomen, lumbar spine, and pelvis radiographies caused 50%-57% lower effective doses than AP projection and 50%-60% reduction in radiation risks. Also use of LAO projection of lumbar spine X-ray examination caused 53% lower effective dose than RPO projection and 56% and 63% reduction in radiation risk for male and female, respectively, and RAO projection caused 28% lower effective dose than LPO projection and 52% and 39% reduction in radiation risk for males and females, respectively. About dose reduction in the gonads, using of the PA position rather than AP in the radiographies of the abdomen, lumbar spine, and pelvis can result in reduction of the ovaries doses in women, 38%, 31%, and 25%, respectively and reduction of the testicles doses in males, 76%, 86%, and 94%, respectively. Also for oblique projections of lumbar spine X-ray examination, with employment of LAO rather than RPO and also RAO rather than LPO, demonstrated 22% and 13% reductions to the ovaries doses and 66% and 54% reductions in the testicles doses, respectively.
  5,769 190 -
Effective atomic numbers of some tissue substitutes by different methods: A comparative study
Vishwanath P Singh, NM Badiger
January-March 2014, 39(1):24-31
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125489  PMID:24600169
Effective atomic numbers of some human organ tissue substitutes such as polyethylene terephthalate, red articulation wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2, bolus, pitch, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, polyvinylchloride, and modeling clay have been calculated by four different methods like Auto-Z eff, direct, interpolation, and power law. It was found that the effective atomic numbers computed by Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were in good agreement for intermediate energy region (0.1 MeV < E < 5 MeV) where the Compton interaction dominates. A large difference in effective atomic numbers by direct method and Auto-Z eff was observed in photo-electric and pair-production regions. Effective atomic numbers computed by power law were found to be close to direct method in photo-electric absorption region. The Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were found to be in good agreement for computation of effective atomic numbers in intermediate energy region (100 keV < E < 10 MeV). The direct method was found to be appropriate method for computation of effective atomic numbers in photo-electric region (10 keV < E < 100 keV). The tissue equivalence of the tissue substitutes is possible to represent by any method for computation of effective atomic number mentioned in the present study. An accurate estimation of Rayleigh scattering is required to eliminate effect of molecular, chemical, or crystalline environment of the atom for estimation of gamma interaction parameters.
  4,698 254 -
Neutron dose measurements of Varian and Elekta linacs by TLD600 and TLD700 dosimeters and comparison with MCNP calculations
Hassan Ali Nedaie, Hoda Darestani, Nooshin Banaee, Negin Shagholi, Kheirollah Mohammadi, Arjang Shahvar, Esmaeel Bayat
January-March 2014, 39(1):10-17
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125476  PMID:24600167
High-energy linacs produce secondary particles such as neutrons (photoneutron production). The neutrons have the important role during treatment with high energy photons in terms of protection and dose escalation. In this work, neutron dose equivalents of 18 MV Varian and Elekta accelerators are measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) 600 and TLD700 detectors and compared with the Monte Carlo calculations. For neutron and photon dose discrimination, first TLDs were calibrated separately by gamma and neutron doses. Gamma calibration was carried out in two procedures; by standard 60Co source and by 18 MV linac photon beam. For neutron calibration by 241 Am-Be source, irradiations were performed in several different time intervals. The Varian and Elekta linac heads and the phantom were simulated by the MCNPX code (v. 2.5). Neutron dose equivalent was calculated in the central axis, on the phantom surface and depths of 1, 2, 3.3, 4, 5, and 6 cm. The maximum photoneutron dose equivalents which calculated by the MCNPX code were 7.06 and 2.37 mSv.Gy -1 for Varian and Elekta accelerators, respectively, in comparison with 50 and 44 mSv.Gy -1 achieved by TLDs. All the results showed more photoneutron production in Varian accelerator compared to Elekta. According to the results, it seems that TLD600 and TLD700 pairs are not suitable dosimeters for neutron dosimetry inside the linac field due to high photon flux, while MCNPX code is an appropriate alternative for studying photoneutron production.
  4,465 208 -
TECHNICAL NOTE
Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India
A Saravanakumar, K Vaideki, KN Govindarajan, S Jayakumar
January-March 2014, 39(1):50-55
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125509  PMID:24600173
Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDI w ), volumetric CT dose index (CTDI v ), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDI w , CTDI v , and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDI v and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level.
  3,719 166 -
Radiation dose verification using real tissue phantom in modern radiotherapy techniques
Om Prakash Gurjar, SP Mishra, Virendra Bhandari, Pankaj Pathak, Prapti Patel, Garima Shrivastav
January-March 2014, 39(1):44-49
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125504  PMID:24600172
In vitro dosimetric verification prior to patient treatment has a key role in accurate and precision radiotherapy treatment delivery. Most of commercially available dosimetric phantoms have almost homogeneous density throughout their volume, while real interior of patient body has variable and varying densities inside. In this study an attempt has been made to verify the physical dosimetry in actual human body scenario by using goat head as "head phantom" and goat meat as "tissue phantom". The mean percentage variation between planned and measured doses was found to be 2.48 (standard deviation (SD): 0.74), 2.36 (SD: 0.77), 3.62 (SD: 1.05), and 3.31 (SD: 0.78) for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) (head phantom), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT; head phantom), 3DCRT (tissue phantom), and IMRT (tissue phantom), respectively. Although percentage variations in case of head phantom were within tolerance limit (< ± 3%), but still it is higher than the results obtained by using commercially available phantoms. And the percentage variations in most of cases of tissue phantom were out of tolerance limit. On the basis of these preliminary results it is logical and rational to develop radiation dosimetry methods based on real human body and also to develop an artificial phantom which should truly represent the interior of human body.
  2,862 224 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
ScintSim1 : A new Monte Carlo simulation code for transport of optical photons in 2D arrays of scintillation detectors
Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi, Zinat Zarrini-Monfared, Sareh Karbasi, Ali Zamani
January-March 2014, 39(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125481  PMID:24600168
Two-dimensional (2D) arrays of thick segmented scintillators are of interest as X-ray detectors for both 2D and 3D image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Their detection process involves ionizing radiation energy deposition followed by production and transport of optical photons. Only a very limited number of optical Monte Carlo simulation models exist, which has limited the number of modeling studies that have considered both stages of the detection process. We present ScintSim1, an in-house optical Monte Carlo simulation code for 2D arrays of scintillation crystals, developed in the MATLAB programming environment. The code was rewritten and revised based on an existing program for single-element detectors, with the additional capability to model 2D arrays of elements with configurable dimensions, material, etc., The code generates and follows each optical photon history through the detector element (and, in case of cross-talk, the surrounding ones) until it reaches a configurable receptor, or is attenuated. The new model was verified by testing against relevant theoretically known behaviors or quantities and the results of a validated single-element model. For both sets of comparisons, the discrepancies in the calculated quantities were all <1%. The results validate the accuracy of the new code, which is a useful tool in scintillation detector optimization.
  2,338 203 -
Monte Carlo-based revised values of dose rate constants at discrete photon energies
T Palani Selvam, Vandana Shrivastava, Ghanashyam Chourasiya, D. Appala Raju Babu
January-March 2014, 39(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125473  PMID:24600166
Absorbed dose rate to water at 0.2 cm and 1 cm due to a point isotropic photon source as a function of photon energy is calculated using the EDKnrc user-code of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. This code system utilized widely used XCOM photon cross-section dataset for the calculation of absorbed dose to water. Using the above dose rates, dose rate constants are calculated. Air-kerma strength S k needed for deriving dose rate constant is based on the mass-energy absorption coefficient compilations of Hubbell and Seltzer published in the year 1995. A comparison of absorbed dose rates in water at the above distances to the published values reflects the differences in photon cross-section dataset in the low-energy region (difference is up to 2% in dose rate values at 1 cm in the energy range 30-50 keV and up to 4% at 0.2 cm at 30 keV). A maximum difference of about 8% is observed in the dose rate value at 0.2 cm at 1.75 MeV when compared to the published value. S k calculations based on the compilation of Hubbell and Seltzer show a difference of up to 2.5% in the low-energy region (20-50 keV) when compared to the published values. The deviations observed in the values of dose rate and S k affect the values of dose rate constants up to 3%.
  2,297 173 -
TECHNICAL NOTE
Estimation of dose enhancement to soft tissue due to backscatter radiation near metal interfaces during head and neck radiothearpy - A phantom dosimetric study with radiochromic film
Rajesh Ashok Kinhikar, Chandrashekhar M Tambe, Kalpana Patil, Mahadev Mandavkar, Deepak D Deshpande, Rajendra Gujjalanavar, Prabha Yadav, Ashwini Budrukkar
January-March 2014, 39(1):40-43
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125501  PMID:24600171
The objective of this study was to investigate the dose enhancement to soft tissue due to backscatter radiation near metal interfaces during head and neck radiotherapy. The influence of titanium-mandibular plate with the screws on radiation dose was tested on four real bones from mandible with the metal and screws fixed. Radiochromic films were used for dosimetry. The bone and metal were inserted through the film at the center symmetrically. This was then placed in a small jig (7 cm × 7 cm × 10 cm) to hold the film vertically straight. The polymer granules (tissue-equivalent) were placed around the film for homogeneous scatter medium. The film was irradiated with 6 MV X-rays for 200 monitor units in Trilogy linear accelerator for 10 cm × 10 cm field size with source to axis distance of 100 cm at 5 cm. A single film was also irradiated without any bone and metal interface for reference data. The absolute dose and the vertical dose profile were measured from the film. There was 10% dose enhancement due to the backscatter radiation just adjacent to the metal-bone interface for all the materials. The extent of the backscatter effect was up to 4 mm. There is significant higher dose enhancement in the soft tissue/skin due to the backscatter radiation from the metallic components in the treatment region.
  2,176 163 -
EDITORIAL
Measurement traceability in medical physics
Lisa R Karam
January-March 2014, 39(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125470  PMID:24600165
  1,935 126 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Use of ultrabook and iPad mini for processing, display, storage and transmission of medical images using MIM software
Sankaran Ananthanarayanan
January-March 2014, 39(1):56-59
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.125510  PMID:24600174
  1,793 91 -
 
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