Journal of Medical Physics
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   2009| October-December  | Volume 34 | Issue 4  
    Online since September 29, 2009

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Comparison of radiation doses using weight-based protocol and dose modulation techniques for patients undergoing biphasic abdominal computed tomography examinations
Roshan S Livingstone, Paul M Dinakaran, Rekha S Cherian, Anu Eapen
October-December 2009, 34(4):217-222
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.56085  PMID:20098552
Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen contributes a substantial amount of man-made radiation dose to patients and use of this modality is on the increase. This study intends to compare radiation dose and image quality using dose modulation techniques and weight- based protocol exposure parameters for biphasic abdominal CT. Using a six-slice CT scanner, a prospective study of 426 patients who underwent abdominal CT examinations was performed. Constant tube potentials of 90 kV and 120 kV were used for all arterial and portal venous phase respectively. The tube current-time product for weight-based protocol was optimized according to patient's body weight; this was automatically selected in dose modulations. The effective dose using weight-based protocol, angular and z-axis dose modulation was 11.3 mSv, 9.5 mSv and 8.2 mSv respectively for the patient's body weight ranging from 40 to 60 kg. For patients of body weights ranging 60 to 80 kg, the effective doses were 13.2 mSv, 11.2 mSv and 10.6 mSv respectively. The use of dose modulation technique resulted in a reduction of 16 to 28% in radiation dose with acceptable diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the use of weight-based protocol settings.
  7 4,350 266
Different intensity extension methods and their impact on entrance dose in breast radiotherapy: A study
A Sankar, J Velmurugan
October-December 2009, 34(4):200-205
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.56079  PMID:20098549
In breast radiotherapy, skin flashing of treatment fields is important to account for intrafraction movements and setup errors. This study compares the two different intensity extension methods, namely, Virtual Bolus method and skin flash tool method, to provide skin flashing in intensity modulated treatment fields. The impact of these two different intensity extension methods on skin dose was studied by measuring the entrance dose of the treatment fields using semiconductor diode detectors. We found no significant difference in entrance dose due to different methods used for intensity extension. However, in the skin flash tool method, selection of appropriate parameters is important to get optimum fluence extension.
  6 4,067 491
Use of Cesium-131 radioactive seeds in prostate permanent implants
TS Kehwar
October-December 2009, 34(4):191-193
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.56077  PMID:20098547
  5 3,336 364
Radiobiological modeling of interplay between accelerated repopulation and altered fractionation schedules in head and neck cancer
Loredana G Marcu, Eva Bezak
October-December 2009, 34(4):206-211
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.56081  PMID:20098550
Head and neck cancer represents a challenge for radiation oncologists due to accelerated repopulation of cancer cells during treatment. This study aims to simulate, using Monte Carlo methods, the response of a virtual head and neck tumor to both conventional and altered fractionation schedules in radiotherapy when accelerated repopulation is considered. Although clinical trials are indispensable for evaluation of novel therapeutic techniques, they are time-consuming processes which involve many complex and variable factors for success. Models can overcome some of the limitations encountered by trials as they are able to simulate in less complex environment tumor cell kinetics and dynamics, interaction processes between cells and ionizing radiation and their outcome. Conventional, hyperfractionated and accelerated treatment schedules have been implemented in a previously developed tumor growth model which also incorporates tumor repopulation during treatment. This study focuses on the influence of three main treatment-related parameters, dose per fraction, inter fraction interval and length of treatment gap and gap timing based on RTOG trial data on head and neck cancer, on tumor control. The model has shown that conventionally fractionated radiotherapy is not able to eradicate the stem population of the tumor. Therefore, new techniques such as hyperfractionated/ accelerated radiotherapy schedules should be employed. Furthermore, the correct selection of schedule-related parameters (dose per fraction, time between fractions, treatment gap scheduling) is crucial in overcoming accelerated repopulation. Modeling of treatment regimens and their input parameters can offer better understanding of the radiobiological interactions and also treatment outcome.
  5 3,475 291
Simple technique for fabrication of shielding blocks for total body irradiation at extended treatment distances
R Ravichandran, JP Binukumar, CA Davis, AM Zahid, B Rajan
October-December 2009, 34(4):223-225
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.56084  PMID:20098553
Techniques are being standardized in our department for total body irradiation (TBI) with six MV photons in linear accelerator for preconditioning to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Individualized shields with low melting point alloy are to be fabricated for shielding critical organs such as lungs, kidneys etc. A method to mount diminished dimension of shields in a tray at 3.75m is designed in the department for a teletreatment distance of four meters with magna field with A simulator image taken with the patient's midplane (MP) at one meter distance is used to mark the dimensions of lung, scaled down by a factor of 3.75/4.0. These lung dimensions are reprinted from the digital simulator image for making the shield. The methodology of the technique using digitized minification in radiography is the first of its kind to be used for shield cutting in magna field radiotherapy.
  3 3,103 339
Commissioning experience and quality assurance of helical tomotherapy machines
Amarjit Sen, Matthew K West
October-December 2009, 34(4):194-199
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.56078  PMID:20098548
A helical tomotherapy machine combines a straight 6 MV linear accelerator mounted on a ring gantry with CT technology for image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. A fan beam created by the collimator and jaws produces a maximum of 40 Χ 5 cm 2 field size at the isocenter. The gantry and hence the fan beam rotates at a constant speed while the couch moves linearly into the gantry bore, thus producing a helical delivery. The beam is modulated by a 64-leaf binary multileaf collimator (MLC), which enables IMRT treatment. The linac can be operated at a lower voltage (3.5 MV) and dose rate to produce megavoltage CT images, which are used for image-guided patient setup. We have installed two such units since 2004 and treated more than 2000 patients. The machine comes "precommissioned" from the manufacturer, and the beam characteristics and IMRT plans on phantom are measured and compared with manufacturer's data after acceptance tests are performed on site. Our experience with commissioning the machines and periodic quality assurance with tolerance limits for optimal performance are described.
  2 4,330 459
Topics in accelerator health physics: HPS professional development school proceedings
Marc Mackenzie
October-December 2009, 34(4):226-226
  - 1,402 132
T Ganesh
October-December 2009, 34(4):227-229
  - 1,757 158
Monte Carlo simulation studies on scintillation detectors and image reconstruction of brain-phantom tumors in TOFPET
Nagendra Nath Mondal
October-December 2009, 34(4):212-216
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.56083  PMID:20098551
This study presents Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) results of detection efficiencies, spatial resolutions and resolving powers of a time-of-flight (TOF) PET detector systems. Cerium activated Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (Lu 2 SiO 5 : Ce in short LSO), Barium Fluoride (BaF 2 ) and BriLanCe 380 (Cerium doped Lanthanum tri-Bromide, in short LaBr 3 ) scintillation crystals are studied in view of their good time and energy resolutions and shorter decay times. The results of MCS based on GEANT show that spatial resolution, detection efficiency and resolving power of LSO are better than those of BaF 2 and LaBr 3 , although it possesses inferior time and energy resolutions. Instead of the conventional position reconstruction method, newly established image reconstruction (talked about in the previous work) method is applied to produce high-tech images. Validation is a momentous step to ensure that this imaging method fulfills all purposes of motivation discussed by reconstructing images of two tumors in a brain phantom.
  - 3,105 234
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