Journal of Medical Physics
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   2009| January-March  | Volume 34 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 14, 2009

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Extrapolation chamber mounted on perspex for calibration of high energy photon and electron beams from a clinical linear accelerator
R Ravichandran, JP Binukumar, SS Sivakumar, K Krishnamurthy, CA Davis
January-March 2009, 34(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48718  PMID:20126563
The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC) used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water) the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor variations in dose output on different days.
  11,328 257 1
Infrared thermal imaging for detection of peripheral vascular disorders
S Bagavathiappan, T Saravanan, John Philip, T Jayakumar, Baldev Raj, R Karunanithi, T.M.R Panicker, M Paul Korath, K Jagadeesan
January-March 2009, 34(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48720  PMID:20126565
Body temperature is a very useful parameter for diagnosing diseases. There is a definite correlation between body temperature and diseases. We have used Infrared Thermography to study noninvasive diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases. Temperature gradients are observed in the affected regions of patients with vascular disorders, which indicate abnormal blood flow in the affected region. Thermal imaging results are well correlated with the clinical findings. Certain areas on the affected limbs show increased temperature profiles, probably due to inflammation and underlying venous flow changes. In general the temperature contrast in the affected regions is about 0.7 to 1 C above the normal regions, due to sluggish blood circulation. The results suggest that the thermal imaging technique is an effective technique for detecting small temperature changes in the human body due to vascular disorders.
  8,041 369 16
Comparative study of convolution, superposition, and fast superposition algorithms in conventional radiotherapy, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques for various sites, done on CMS XIO planning system
KR Muralidhar, Narayana P Murthy, Alluri Krishnam Raju, NVNM Sresty
January-March 2009, 34(1):12-22
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48716  PMID:20126561
The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetry results that are obtained by using Convolution, Superposition and Fast Superposition algorithms in Conventional Radiotherapy, Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for different sites, and to study the suitability of algorithms with respect to site and technique. For each of the Conventional, 3D-CRT, and IMRT techniques, four different sites, namely, Lung, Esophagus, Prostate, and Hypopharynx were analyzed. Treatment plans were created using 6MV Photon beam quality using the CMS XiO (Computerized Medical System, St.Louis, MO) treatment planning system. The maximum percentage of variation recorded between algorithms was 3.7% in case of Ca.Lung, for the IMRT Technique. Statistical analysis was performed by comparing the mean relative difference, Conformity Index, and Homogeneity Index for target structures. The fast superposition algorithm showed excellent results for lung and esophagus cases for all techniques. For the prostate, the superposition algorithm showed better results in all techniques. In the conventional case of the hypopharynx, the convolution algorithm was good. In case of Ca. Lung, Ca Prostate, Ca Esophagus, and Ca Hypopharynx, OARs got more doses with the superposition algorithm; this progressively decreased for fast superposition and convolution algorithms, respectively. According to this study the dosimetric results using different algorithms led to significant variation and therefore care had to be taken while evaluating treatment plans. The choice of a dose calculation algorithm may in certain cases even influence clinical results.
  6,609 768 5
Design and development of an inflatable latex balloon to reduce rectal and bladder doses for patients undergoing high dose rate brachytherapy
P Raghukumar, Raghu Ram K Nair, Abi S Aprem, Saju Bhasi, Suja Sisupal, V Padmanbhan
January-March 2009, 34(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48721  PMID:20126566
Multiple fractions of High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy along with external beam therapy is the common method of treatment for cancer of the uterine cervix. Urinary bladder and rectum are the organs at risk (OARs) that receive a significant dose during treatment. To reduce the dose to these organs, a majority of hospitals use vaginal gauze packing, as it is a simple, nontraumatic, and easy method. This article describes the design and development of an inflatable balloon that can be used along with the applicator as a substitute for gauze packing. The balloon has two parts-the bladder part (B-part) and the rectum part (R-part), both of them are independently inflatable. The selection of the material, its width, length, and thickness are described. A mould/former for making the balloon was designed. Polished steel was used as the mould. This was dipped in specially prepared natural rubber latex (NRL) solution several times; the layers were dried and stripped to get the balloon. The composition of NRL and the compounding recipe of the latex are also described. Physical tests like tensile strength, elongation at break, bursting volume, and radiation attenuation caused by the balloon, were checked. Biological tests for assessing type I and type IV allergies, like dermal irritation and skin irritation tests, were also done.
  3,978 259 3
Effects of energy spectrum on dose distribution calculations for high energy electron beams
Abdelkader Toutaoui, Nadia Khelassi-Toutaoui, Zakia Brahimi, Ahmed Chafik Chami
January-March 2009, 34(1):4-11
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48715  PMID:20126560
In an early work we have demonstrated the possibility of using Monte Carlo generated pencil beams for 3D electron beam dose calculations. However, in this model the electron beam was considered as monoenergetic and the effects of the energy spectrum were taken into account by correction factors, derived from measuring central-axis depth dose curves. In the present model, the electron beam is considered as polyenergetic and the pencil beam distribution of a clinical electron beam, of a given nominal energy, is represented as a linear combination of Monte Carlo monoenergetic pencil beams. The coefficients of the linear combination describe the energy spectrum of the clinical electron beam, and are chosen to provide the best-fit between the calculated and measured central axis depth dose, in water. The energy spectrum is determined by the constrained least square method. The angular distribution of the clinical electron beam is determined by in-air penumbra measurements. The predictions of this algorithm agree very well with the measurements in the region near the surface, and the discrepancies between the measured and calculated dose distributions, behind 3D heterogeneities, are reduced to less than 10%. We have demonstrated a new algorithm for 3D electron beam dose calculations, which takes into account the energy spectra. Results indicate that the use of this algorithm leads to a better modeling of dose distributions downstream, from complex heterogeneities.
  3,783 447 -
Issues related to the implementation of internship/ residency program for qualified medical radiation physicists
SD Sharma
January-March 2009, 34(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48714  PMID:20126559
  3,315 487 -
Ultrafast bold fMRI using single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging
Said Boujraf, Paul Summers, Faouzi Belahsen, Klaas Prussmann, Spyros Kollias
January-March 2009, 34(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48719  PMID:20126564
The choice of imaging parameters for functional MRI can have an impact on the accuracy of functional localization by affecting the image quality and the degree of blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) contrast achieved. By improving sampling efficiency, parallel acquisition techniques such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE) have been used to shorten readout trains in single-shot (SS) echo planar imaging (EPI). This has been applied to susceptibility artifact reduction and improving spatial resolution. SENSE together with single-shot spin-echo (SS-SE) imaging may also reduce off-resonance artifacts. The goal of this work was to investigate the BOLD response of a SENSE-adapted SE-EPI on a three Tesla scanner. Whole-brain fMRI studies of seven healthy right hand-dominant volunteers were carried out in a three Tesla scanner. fMRI was performed using an SS-SE EPI sequence with SENSE. The data was processed using statistical parametric mapping. Both, group and individual subject data analyses were performed. Individual average percentage and maximal percentage signal changes attributed to the BOLD effect in M1 were calculated for all the subjects as a function of echo time. Corresponding activation maps and the sizes of the activated clusters were also calculated. Our results show that susceptibility artifacts were reduced with the use of SENSE; and the acquired BOLD images were free of the typical quadrature artifacts of SS-EPI. Such measures are crucial at high field strengths. SS SE-EPI with SENSE offers further benefits in this regard and is more specific for oxygenation changes in the microvasculature bed. Functional brain activity can be investigated with the help of single-shot spin echo EPI using SENSE at high magnetic fields.
  3,552 200 4
Dosimetric validation of first helical tomotherapy Hi-Art II machine in India
Rajesh A Kinhikar, Swamidas V Jamema, Reenadevi , Rajeshri Pai, Master Zubin, Tejpal Gupta, Deepak S Dhote, Deepak D Deshpande, Shyam K Shrivastava, Rajiv Sarin
January-March 2009, 34(1):23-30
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.48717  PMID:20126562
A Helical Tomotherapy (HT) Hi-Art II machine, Hi ART (TomoTherapy, Inc., Madison, WI, USA) was installed at our center in July 2007, and was the first machine in India. Image-guided HT is a new modality for delivering intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Dosimetric tests done include (a) primary beam alignment (b) secondary beam alignment (c) water tank measurements (profiles and depth doses) (d) dose rate measurements (e) IMRT verification, and (f) Mega voltage Computed Tomography (MVCT) dose. Primary and secondary beam alignment revealed an acceptable linear accelerator (linac) alignment in both X and Y axes. In addition, it was observed that the beam was aligned in the same plane as gantry and the jaws were not twisted with respect to gantry. The rotational beam stability was acceptable. Multi-leaf collimators (MLC) were found to be stable and properly aligned with the radiation plane. The jaw alignment during gantry rotation was satisfactory. Transverse and longitudinal profiles were in good agreement with the "Gold" standard. During IMRT verification, the variation between the measured and calculated dose for a particular plan at the central and off-axis was found to be within 2% and 1mm in position, respectively. The dose delivered during the TomoImage scan was found to be 2.57 cGy. The Helical Tomotherapy system is mechanically stable and found to be acceptable for clinical treatment. It is recommended that the output of the machine should be measured on a daily basis to monitor the fluctuations in output.
  3,400 281 -
Highlights of International Conference on Medical Physics (ICMP- 2008)
SD Sharma
January-March 2009, 34(1):55-56
  2,791 268 -
The Modern Technology of Radiation Oncology - Volumes I (1999) and II (2005)
N Suntharalingam
January-March 2009, 34(1):58-58
  2,206 205 -
News and Events
T Ganesh
January-March 2009, 34(1):52-54
  1,592 143 -

January-March 2009, 34(1):59-59
  774 75 -
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