Journal of Medical Physics
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   1995| April-June  | Volume 20 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 24, 2009

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Brachytherapy - Past, Present And Future
V K Gupta
April-June 1995, 20(2):31-38
Discovery of radioactivity by Henry Becquerel and radium by Madame and Pierre Curie was probably the greatest event of 19th century in the field of medical science. Radium was used for brachytherapy as early as 1901. Today almost every organ is amenable to brachytherapy procedure. High dose rate remote afterloading systems have increased the patients comfort and complete radiation protection to the staff during treatment. Computers have not only improved the precision of treatment but also made 3 D conformal brachytherapy possible. As the goal of cancer management is changing from just life preservation to organ and function preservation without compromising cure rate, the role of brachytherapy is becoming more and more prominent. Intensive efforts will be needed meet with the future challenges.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  2,499 252 -
Quality Assurance In Diagnostic Radiology : Regulations In The Federal Republic Of Germany
K Ewen
April-June 1995, 20(2):23-25
On January 1, 1988 the amended Radiation Protection Regulation for X-ray Sources came into force in Germany. With that the old regulation which was valid since 1973 was discontinued. This amendment established the regulation on quality assurance in diagnostic radiology. The main objective of the quality assurance is the optimization of the image quality while maintaining the demand of the smallest possible exposure of the patient. In that connection the user of diagnostic X-ray equipment is asked to perform acceptance and constancy tests. Regulations of this kind also lead to a significant improvement of the image quality while lowering the exposure of the patient.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  574 116 -
A Routine TLD Badge Reader For High Gamma Dose Measurement
R N Das Sarma, H K Pendurkar, T V Venkateswaran
April-June 1995, 20(2):39-40
Studies were carried out on an indigenous and commercially available TLD Badge Reader in the range of 0.1 Gy to 10 Gy gamma exposure. Based on the data obtained, reproducibility parameters of the Reader have been evaluated and methods and procedures required to be followed for monitoring high exposures are discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  561 113 -
Does Bridging The Gap Between Knowledge And Practice Help? Example Of Patient Dose Reduction In Radiology
M M Rehani, Rashmi Kaul, Pratik Kumar, M Berry
April-June 1995, 20(2):18-22
The paper is aimed at bridging the gap between knowledge and practice and evaluating the impact of this activity on reduction of patient dose. While enormous data on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology exists, there is absolute lack of information at user's level. For example, the implications on patient dose from 1cm error in X-ray field size or error of 5 kVp or 5 mAs is invariably not known. We estimated that 1cm increase in field size results in irradiation of 600-900cc of extra volume of patient which may contain sensitive tissue, 5 kVp increase results in exposure of 3565 mR, with more effect in case of lumbar spine and abdomen X-ray and lesser for chest and D-Spine, 5 mAs error results in 4-25 mR. The impact of information supply to users was evaluated and it was found that information based approach results in dose reduction to patient and improved image quality.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  594 70 -
The Effect Of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF) On Rotating Gamma Cameras
Mustafa Demir, Tunaya M Kalkan, Haulk B Sayman, Omer R Saka, Caner Mete, Cetin Onsel
April-June 1995, 20(2):14-17
One of the physical factors affecting SPECT's images is the extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) radiated from electrical devices. To create ELF we connected 8 serially combined solenoids to the mains supply (220 Volts, 50 Hz) with 4 amperes current flowing through them. The solenoids were moved along the vertical plane below the face of the detector to change the ELF intensity. The magnetic flux density of the created ELF was found to be between 0.05 mT and 1.2 rnT at the center of the detector. We found that ELF had exponentially decreased the count rates of a 99mTc point source by diverting the electrons in the phototubes from their course. We deduce that ELF affects the routine quality control test results of SPECT and deteriorate the images.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  572 62 -
The Role Of Extrapolated Response Dose Concept In HBI Treatments Of Disseminated Painful Osseous Metastases
M S Belliappa, Sanjay S Supe, M H Shariff, Anil K Sharma, N Anantha
April-June 1995, 20(2):26-30
Hemibody irradiation (HBI) has emerged as an efficient and effective treatment for the palliation of pain in patients with symptomatic widespread cancer. The rational for such an unconventional radiation delivery is to try to achieve effective pain palliation to large affected body areas with prompt efficiency and minimal inconvenience to terminal cancer patients. In this report a prospective study is undertaken as to the existence of a correlation between ERD versus response rate in a series of patients with disseminated painful osseous metastases with megavoltage HBI treatments. Correlation of ERD with response rate was excellent. There was a sharp increase in response rate from ERD of 13 Gy onwards (p value < 0.05). From our results it is suggested that in the HBI treatments of disseminated painful osseous metastases ERD value'l3 Gy as the minimum for a favourable response rate as per the treatment schedule that we have used.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  534 57 -
Absorbed Dose Measurements Of High Energy Photon Beams
S C Misra, A Kannan, S B Naik
April-June 1995, 20(2):1-8
Accurate dose measurement of high energy photon beams is important in radiotherapy. Measurement of absorbed dose to water through ionization chamber is the most commonly used method for routine dose evaluation. The international Code of Practice, recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency is one of the widely used code for this purpose. Salient features of this code are given, with special reference to BARC make dosimeter, having a tufnol walled ion chamber. The recent observations made during the testing of this code at different laboratories are discussed. The status of dosimetry in India at primary, secondary and user levels is given. The results of TLD intercomparisons with various radiotherapy centres in the country are discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  470 107 -
On-line Beam Data Acquisition System And Beam Data Analysis
Paul B Ravindran, C A Jayachandran
April-June 1995, 20(2):9-13
An indigenous microprocessor controlled Radiation Field Analyzer has been in use for the last one year in this hospital. It has completely replaced the laborious manual procedure of beam data collection. This paper describes the improvements carried out in the mechanical system for the detector movement, the on-line data acquisition and beam data analysis software developed for an IBM compatible personal computer and the results of the measurements carried out on teletherapy units. Beam profiles and central axis depth dose measurements for open, wedge and shaped beams carried out on teletherapy units and the isodose curves generated with these data are also presented in this paper.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  461 82 -
Association Of Medical Physicists Of India Up-Delhi Chapter
A.K. Shukla
April-June 1995, 20(2):41-41
Full text not available  [PDF]
  259 41 -
Report On Meeting Of Members Of AMPI (K) Chapter On 19-2-1995 KMIO
R. Ravichandran
April-June 1995, 20(2):42-42
Full text not available  [PDF]
  221 38 -
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