Year : 2018 | Volume
: 43 | Issue : 4 | Page : 277--279
Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
Dr. Pratik Kumar
Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi - 110 029
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar P. News.J Med Phys 2018;43:277-279
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar P. News. J Med Phys [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 Sep 25 ];43:277-279
Available from: https://www.jmp.org.in/text.asp?2018/43/4/277/247096
International Atomic Energy Agency Human Health Report on Medical Physics Staffing in Diagnostic Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna has published its Human Health Report No. 15 in February 2018 entitled “Medical Physics Staffing Needs in Diagnostic Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy: An Activity-based Approach.” The report underlines the fast developing role of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, and nuclear medicine owing to the fast-paced technological innovation and complexities witnessed in these areas. The new international Basic Safety Standards highlights the newer role for Medical Physicists which is much beyond the traditional and parochial view of only QA in imaging and contamination and waste management in nuclear medicine. The new roles include installation design, technical specifications, acceptance and commissioning of equipment, calibration and verification of measuring equipment, their technical supervision and maintenance, quality management of physical and technical aspects of radiation medicine, radiation dosimetry and radiation safety of radiation sources, patients, staff and public, optimization of procedures, clinical computing and networking, radiation research and education and training. All these warrant adequate staff deployment in diagnostic physics and radionuclide treatment. This publication provides the guidelines for adequate staff for the initiation of new services, expansion of existing ones or upgradation of such services. The publication has developed an algorithm based on similar recommendations which take into account the estimate of time and efforts required to accomplish various tasks. The publication which has undergone a wider external review by the medical physicists has been developed by a team of researchers which included D. Mclean (Australia), S. Holm (US). This report has also been endorsed by the International Organization for Medical Physics. The publication may be accessed at:
AAPM Practice Guidelines for Performance Tests for Linear Accelerator
AAPM has recently come up with Practice Guidelines for Linear Accelerator Performance Tests in the beginning of 2017. This guideline provides the list of performance tests which may be incorporated by a qualified Medical Physicist to establish an effective quality assurance program for the linear accelerator. The tests have been grouped on the basis of their types (such as mechanical, safety tests, and dosimetry). The technology for Linear Accelerator is evolving rapidly, and many a times the method and techniques employed in treatment on the accelerator depends on the disease, protocol adopted and work-flow. Those parameters which are most efficient to detect the error during specific use of the accelerators must be checked periodically. These guidelines are for C-arm type accelerators and do not cover specific types such as cyberknife and tomotherapy. The guidelines were published in July 2017, Vol 18 (4) issue of J App Clin Med Phys.
TOPAS Tool for Particle Simulation
As a member of Informatics Technology for Cancer Research of US National Cancer Institute TOPAS tool for particle simulation has become free for any user involved in education and research in Medical Physics and Radiation Biology at or for not-for-profit organization. TOPAS builds upon and extends the Geant4 Simulation Toolkit for Monte Carlo simulation and is easier of Medical Physicists. It models treatment heads employing X-rays or particulate therapy, CT-based patient geometry, incorporates fluence, beam delivery and is capable to handle the variation in 4D. In a free paper published in AAPM journal Med. Phys. No. 2012, 39 (11) TOPAS has been called as Proton Monte Carlo platform. It is also suitable for some medical imaging application, radiation biology, and science education. Topas Documentation Release 3.1 has been released in July 2018 and may be seen at:
New Guidelines for Radiation Treatment of Early Stage Prostate Cancer from American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Society of Clinical Oncology and American Urological Association
Three American medical societies, namely, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and American Urological Association have released a new guideline for the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer with external beam radiotherapy. The guideline advocates that hypofractionated radiotherapy of 240–340 CGy per fraction spread over 4–5 weeks may be an alternative to the conventional longer radiation treatment containing 180–200 CGy per fraction spread over 8–9 weeks and hence may be offered to the patients. The hypofractinated therapy which delivers more radiation dose per fraction may be applicable to those patients who have opted for external beam radiotherapy over the surveillance, radical prostatectomy, or brachytherapy.
Details may be seen at: https://www.itnonline.com/content/new-guideline-prostate-cancer-supports-shortened-radiation-therapy.
International Atomic Energy Agency Releases New Guide Radiation Protection and Safety in Medical Use of Ionising Radiation
IAEA, Vienna has recently released a new safety guide Specific Safety Guide No. SSG-46 entitled “Radiation Protection and Safety in Medical Use of Ionising Radiation” which contains the elaborate recommendations and guidance regarding radiation protection of patients, staff, public, comforters, and the volunteers working or active during the use of radiation in medicine. The Guide caters to Diagnostic Radiology (including interventional radiology and dental radiology), Nuclear Medicine, and Radiotherapy. The new compendium which supersedes IAEA Safety Standard Series No. RS-G-1.5 entitled “Radiological Protection for Medical Exposure to Ionising Radiation” issued in 2002 and several other Safety Reports of IAEA issued in 2005–2006 is the product of the collaboration of IAEA member states, World Health Organization, International Labour Office (ILO), and other health organizations. The recommendations are useful for medical facility managers, radiation practitioners, radiation technologists, and medical physicists.
The guide is available at: https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/PUB1775_web.pdf.
International Atomic Energy Agency Issues General Safety Guide for All Radiation Workers
IAEA, Vienna has issued in October 2018 a general guideline for all radiation workers under General Safety Guide No. GSG-7 entitled “Occupation Radiation Protection”. The work has been carried out by IAEA under the collaboration of ILO. The guide contains the elaborate guidance for establishing a viable occupational radiation protection programme in almost all the sphere of applications such as medical, industrial, research, educational, agricultural, and nuclear fuel cycle establishments. It comprehensively covers all external exposures as well as internal exposures caused due to the intake of radionuclides. The guide emphasizes on the tracking of radiation workers in case of shifting workforce and maintenance of their dose record according to the safety standards. This newly issued safety guide supersedes five previous safety guides namely Occupational Radiation Protection, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to Intakes of Radionuclides, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to External Sources of Radiation, Occupational Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Raw Materials and the Management System for Technical Services in Radiation Safety.
The General Safety Guide GSG-7 is available at: https://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/PUB1785_web.pdf.
AAPM Report Standardises Nomenclatures in Radiation Oncology
AAPM has published its Report No. 263 entitled “Standardizing Nomenclatures in Radiation Oncology” in January 2018. The report attempts to provide standard names for tissues, structures, targets, terms related to treatment planning, evaluation, tests, image processing, dosimetry, etc., Such standardized nomenclatures will facilitate data pooling, analysis, clinical trials, registries, and oncologic research across the institutions and platforms which need to speak in coherent language. It will expedite data exchange and extraction during routine care as well. The report lists the current standards and even discusses the present situation with color used for structure templates and histograms. The report enumerates the results of pilot testing by five groups as well recognizing that practical situation must be taken into account.
The report may be accessed at https://www.aapm.org/pubs/reports/RPT_263.pdf.
Ring Based Compensator May Become Cheap Alternative to MLC for IMRT
Researchers at the University of Washington Medical Center have proposed a simple and cheap alternative to the moving MLC in IMRT system. It advocates to replace MLC with a ring of physical compensators which surrounds the patient. The treatment gantry rotates around the patient and delivers radiation through the compensators. As the compensators are cheaper, simple, efficient in using MU and effective in streamlining QA such alternative may be quite attractive for the lower and middle-income regions. Such compensators which are stationed on a ring around the patient need not be exchanged between delivery of each field. The researchers have tested the compensator system with a Cobalt-60 system and concluded that the compensator system might deliver a plan with quality similar to that of MLC even for Cobalt-60 beams. The proposed device may be retrofitted to the already existing LINAC and Cobalt-60 machines.
The details is available at: https://physicsworld.com/a/compensator-expands-global-access-to-advanced-radiotherapy/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=iop&utm_term=&utm_campaign=14258-38924&utm_content=Compensator%20expands%20 global%20access%20to%20advanced%20radiotherapy%20.