Journal of Medical Physics
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 33-40

Establishment and dissemination of radiological standards in the field of diagnostic radiology in India

1 Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 School of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Division of Remote Handling Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India

Correspondence Address:
Mrs. Vinatha Sumanth Panyam
Radiation Standards Section, Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmp.JMP_98_20

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Background: The increased use of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purpose has resulted in an increase in the world population dose. Patient dosimetry in X-ray diagnostic radiology is required to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and to assess the average dose received by organs and tissues. International bodies have recommended DRLs to be based on dosimetric quantities. Aim: To cater to the increased requirement for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, international guidelines are provided to establish and disseminate traceable calibration for dosimeters used in X-ray diagnostic radiology. X-ray diagnostic beams established are standardized using a diagnostic range free-air ionization chamber (DFAIC) (20-150 kV). Materials and Methods: Characterization of the DFAIC and determination of the correction factors for the air kerma measurements were evaluated experimentally and by theoretical calculations. Results: The paper details the establishment of 18 diagnostic beam qualities using DFAIC along with the associated uncertainties. The overall uncertainty for the air kerma measurements was within ±0.5% at 1 sigma level. Eight diagnostic range air kerma measurements using DFAIC were compared with the medium energy primary standard FAIC (50–300 kV) maintained in the laboratory. Conclusion: The air kerma rates agreed within ±1% and are within the overall standard uncertainty of both the chambers at the time of the comparison. Dissemination to the users in the field of diagnostic radiology in the country has been carried out by calibrating their ionization chambers and solid-state detector-based instruments against the DFAIC. The methodology followed to standardize the beams using DFAIC and calibration of dosimeters is presented in this work.

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