Journal of Medical Physics
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 44  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 145-155

An experimental slope method for a more accurate measurement of relative radiation doses using radiographic and radiochromic films and its application to megavoltage small-field dosimetry


1 Department of Physics, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu; Department of Medical Physics, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
2 Department of Physics, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Medical Physics, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India
4 Manipal Hospitals, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. D Khanna
Department of Physics, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore - 641 114, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmp.JMP_17_19

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Purpose: An experimental method using the linear portion of the relative film dose–response curve for radiographic and radiochromic films is presented, which can be used to determine the relative depth doses in a variety of very small, medium, and large radiation fields and relative output factors (ROFs) for small fields. Materials and Methods: The film slope (FS) method was successfully applied to obtain the percentage depth doses (PDDs) for external beams of photon and electrons from a Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) under reference conditions of 10 cm × 10 cm for photon beam and nominal 10 cm × 10 cm size applicator for electron beam. For small-field dosimetry, the FS method was applied to EDR2 films (Carestream Health, Rochester, NY) for 6 MV photon beam from a linac (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and small, circular radiosurgery cones (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) with diameters of 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 mm. The ROFs for all these cones and central axis PDDs for 5, 10, and 15 mm diameter cones were determined at source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The ROFs for small fields of CyberKnife system were determined using this technique with Gafchromic EBT3 film (Ashland, NJ, USA). The PDDs and ROFs were compared with ion chamber (IC) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulated values. Results: The maximum percentage deviation of PDDFS with PDDIC for 4, 6, and 15 MV photon beams was within 1.9%, 2.5%, and 1.4%, respectively, up to 20-cm depth. The maximum percentage deviation of PDDFS with PDDIC for electron beams was within 3% for energy range studied of 8–15 MeV. The gamma passing rates of PDDFS with PDDIC were above 96.5% with maximum gamma value of >2, occurring at the zero depths for 4, 6, and 15 MV photons. For electron beams, the gamma passing rates between PDDFS with PDDIC were above 97.7% with a maximum gamma value of 0.9, 1.3, and 0.7 occurring at the zero depth for 8, 12, and 15 MeV. For small field of 5-mm cone, the ROFFS was 0.665 ± 0.021 as compared to 0.674 by MC method. The maximum percentage deviation between PDDFS and PDDMC was 3% for 5 mm and 10 mm and 2% for 15 mm cones with 1D gamma passing rates, respectively, of 95.5%, 96%, and 98%. For CyberKnife system, the ROFFS using EBT3 film and MC published values agrees within 0.2% for for 5 mm cone. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel and more accurate method for the relative dosimetry of photon and electron beams. This offers a unique method to determine PDD and ROF with a high spatial resolution in fields of steep dose gradient, especially in small fields.


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