Journal of Medical Physics
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 100-105

A homogeneous water-equivalent anthropomorphic phantom for dosimetric verification of radiotherapy plans

1 Department of Medical Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu; Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagarjuna Hospital, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Medical Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Radiation Oncology, Fortis Hospital, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Radiotherapy, Government General Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sureka Chandra Sekaran
Department of Medical Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jmp.JMP_123_17

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Water is treated as radiological equivalent to human tissue. While this seems justified, there is neither mathematical proof nor sufficient experimental evidence that a water phantom can be treated as equivalent to human tissue. The aim of this work is to simulate and validate a water phantom that is tissue equivalent in terms of the dosimetric characteristics of both water and human tissue Dynamic, intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for two head and neck, one brain, one pelvis, and three lung/mediastinum cases were chosen for this study. Using a treatment planning system (TPS) (Eclipse, Varian Medical System, Polo Alto, CA, USA) and Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm in a grid resolution of 5 mm × 5 mm, a patient-equivalent water phantom was calculated from all rays in the isocentric plane as an array of water equivalent depths (dWE). These rays were plotted versus isocentric separation and ray-tracing direction.Planar doses were compared between the isocentric plane in the patient computed tomography and the water equivalent phantom using gamma criteria of 2%–2 mm and 3%–3 mm. Except in one lung case, >95% gamma agreement was seen when using 3%–3 mm and >90% pass rate was seen when using 2%–2 mm. For head and neck cases, gamma-fail was restricted to the periphery. For mediastinum cases, gamma-fail was restricted to the lungs. This study demonstrates that a heterogeneous patient can be converted to a water phantom with comparable dosimetric characteristics and disagreements restricted to the lung area for both modulated and open beams. Potential sources of error include the dWEcalculation and TPS dose computation.

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