Journal of Medical Physics
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NEWS
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 74-76
 

News


Professor, Medical Physics Unit, IRCH. AIIMS, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication12-Mar-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pratik Kumar
Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, New Delhi - 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmp.JMP_13_18

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How to cite this article:
Kumar P. News. J Med Phys 2018;43:74-6

How to cite this URL:
Kumar P. News. J Med Phys [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jun 25];43:74-6. Available from: http://www.jmp.org.in/text.asp?2018/43/1/74/227065



   Explorer: A full-Body Positron Emission Tomography Scanner in Making Top


Researchers at University of California, Davis, are working to build a 2-m long total body positron emission tomography (PET) scanner which could be the first full-body scanner in making.

The project is under development by a multi-institutional EXPLORER consortium and likely to provide a whole-body fast PET scanner which may scan the whole body in single breath-hold with about 30–40 times more sensitivity than the current PET scanner despite giving very low dose of 10 MBq (which is about 50 times lower dose than the current scanning system imparts). The device may have 560,000 scintillator crystals and 90 billion lines of response which is about 100 times more than the current technology. In place of sinogram-based reconstruction, EXPLORER uses list-mode data processing for image construction. The scientists have tried to reduce the parallax effect between crystal pair in rings in the long axial field of view (FOV). The first prototype of the EXPLORER is expected to be available next year.

(Taken from www.medicalphysicsweb.org dated March 7, 2017)


   Carbon Ion Dosimetry Accuracy: The Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre on Work Top


Carbon ion therapy is a treatment modality which has certain advantages over conventional radiotherapy, especially for radiation-resistant and deep-seated tumors. Despite being in existence for the last 20 years or so, carbon ion beam dosimetry needed improvement. The researchers from HIT and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt used water calorimeter for the measurement of absorbed dose from the carbon ion beam to quantify the accuracy (or uncertainty) in the dosimetry of the carbon ion beam at the entrance channel by scanning a 6 cm × 6 cm radiation field of 429 MeV per nucleon carbon ion. This led to the experimental measurement of beam quality-dependent KQ factor of the chamber. Until now, this factor was calculated. The researchers could achieve a relative standard measurement uncertainty of 0.8% which is about three-fold reduction in uncertainty in the result from the value arrived at by the calculation method.

(Taken from www.ioppublishing.org dated February 18, 2017)


   AAPM TG 158: Measurement and Calculation of Doses Outside the Treated Volume from External Beam Radiation Therapy Top


The introduction of advanced techniques and technology in radiotherapy has greatly improved our ability to deliver highly conformal tumor doses while minimizing the dose to adjacent organs at risk. Despite these tremendous improvements, there remains a general concern about doses to normal tissues that are not the target of the radiation treatment; any “nontarget” radiation should be minimized as it offers no therapeutic benefit. As patients live longer after treatment, there is increased opportunity for late effects including second cancers and cardiac toxicity to manifest. Complicating the management of these issues, there are unique challenges with measuring, calculating, reducing, and reporting nontarget doses that many medical physicists may have limited experience with. Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) become dramatically inaccurate outside the treatment field, necessitating a measurement or some other means of assessing the dose. However, measurements are challenging because outside the treatment field, the radiation energy spectrum, dose rate, and general shape of the dose distribution (particularly the percent depth dose) are very different and often require special consideration. Neutron dosimetry is also particularly challenging, and common errors in methodology can easily manifest as errors of several orders of magnitude. Task Group 158 was, therefore, formed to provide guidance for physicists in terms of assessing and managing nontarget doses. In particular, the report: (a) highlights the major concerns with nontarget radiation; (b) provides a rough estimate of doses associated with different treatment approaches in clinical practice; (c) discusses the uses of dosimeters for measuring photon, electron, and neutron doses; (d) discusses the use of calculation techniques for dosimetric evaluations; (e) highlights techniques that may be considered for reducing nontarget doses; (f) discusses dose reporting; and (g) makes recommendations for both clinical and research practice.

(The above-written abstract and full-length report has been published on August 20, 2017, in Medical Physics, Vol. 44, e391-e429, DOI: 10.1002/mp.12462).


   Treatsafely Foundation Shares Practical Learning Videos and Documents Top


The TreatSafely Foundation runs a website, https://i.treatsafely.org, which provides free practical learning videos apt for radiation therapy professionals. It is a peer-to-peer learning site and it means that videos are shared by the professionals working in the clinical scenario and about the practical stuff cropping up in our daily life. The site has a vast arrays of topics. For example, a video entitled “Setting the isocenter-Breast field-in-field” by Beth Bottani occupies the label of most-viewed video. “Intro to Quality and Safety-Overview” by Derek Brown is another interesting video. Some newer videos have titles “IMRT Planning in Eclipse” and “Plan Analysis in Eclipse.” The site also has downloadable documents and quality assurance (QA)/Safety series. “Monthly TPS QA” is the most-downloaded document at present, while “Introduction to quality and safety” is the most-viewed QA/Safety series.


   Comparison of Computed Tomography Scanners among Various Models of Different Vendors Top


Imaging Technology News has launched an online chart for comparison of various models of computed tomography (CT) scanners across the vendors in terms of technology, specifications, and other information. According to the site, the chart is sponsored by Philips. The site provides facility for the customized search as well. It lists 43 models of CT scanners spread over six manufacturers and includes even mobile CT scanners. The user has to register with the site before getting the help in comparison of the CT scanners. One may check the following site: https://www.itnonline.com/content/computed-tomography-systems?eid=402709264andbid=1945973.


   Guidance on Three-Dimensional Printing of Medical Devices from the Food and Drug Administration Top


The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a new set of guidelines for creating medical products using three-dimensional (3D) printers. The FDA enumerates its recommendation regarding design of the devices, their testing, and the requirements for the quality system. 3D printing has recently caught the attention of the researchers and has great potential for the wide range of clinical applications such as creating accurate replicas of complex anatomical structures, facilitating surgery simulations for addressing hearing loss, stroke clot, and hip disorders. Such policy framework from the FDA would help the manufacturers to bring 3D-printed models to the market more efficiently. The FDA conducted a joint workshop with the RSNA's 3D Printing Special Interest Group and came up with the recommendations which have three topics. The first one is design and manufacturing process which covers the technical aspects of 3D printing process such as image quality, resolution, image processing algorithm, and clarity of anatomic landmark during acquiring imaging data which helps in creating patient-specific models. The second topic is device testing which deals with testing, characterization, measurement, biocompatibility, sterilization, etc., of the 3D-printed devices. Labeling is the third part which looks after the patient identifier, device use, and final design and survey of the patient for any bodily changes before applying the device. Details are available at https://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/3DPrintingofMedicalDevices/default.htm.

(Based on the publication at AuntMinnie.com)


   The US Food and Drug Administration Approves first 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Top


The Magnetom Terra from Siemens Healthineers has become the first 7 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine approved by the US FDA for its clinical use. So far, 3T MRI is used in clinical practice. A report emanating from the US FDA Centre for Devices and Radiological Health says that increasing magnetic field strength more than double will add to the image quality. The US FDA undertook 510(k) premarket clearance pathway for clearing Magnetom Terra. It also reviewed the safety aspect of its radiofrequency subsystem using simulation, modeling, and experimental measurements. Such high magnetic strength MRI is indicated for the patient who weighs more than 66 pounds and is limited to imaging of extremities. Siemens has informed that such machine has good potential for neurological and musculoskeletal imaging with finer details not available earlier at 3T machine. Detail is available at https://www.itnonline.com/content/fda-clears- first-7t-mri-system-magnetom-terra?eid=402307001andbid=1900080


   ICRP Publication 135: Diagnostic Reference Level in Medical Imaging Top


ICRP Publication 135 details comprehensively about the diagnostic reference level (DRL) in medical imaging. It addresses the issues connected with definition, determination of DRL values, interval for re-evaluation of DRL values, methods to be adopted, application of DRL concept to newer modalities, etc. The report has been authored by E Vano, DL Miller, CJ Martin, MM Rehani, K Kang, M Rosenstein, P Ortiz-Lopez, S Mattsson, R Padovani, and A Rogers and has been published in Ann. ICRP 46(1), 2017.


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