Journal of Medical Physics
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 32-39

Reduction of radiation risks in patients undergoing some X-ray examinations by using optimal projections: A Monte Carlo program-based mathematical calculation


1 Department of Medical Physic, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Gastroenterology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

Correspondence Address:
A Chaparian
Department of Medical Physic, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-6203.125500

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The objectives of this paper were calculation and comparison of the effective doses, the risks of exposure-induced cancer, and dose reduction in the gonads for male and female patients in different projections of some X-ray examinations. Radiographies of lumbar spine [in the eight projections of anteroposterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), right lateral (RLAT), left lateral (LLAT), right anterior-posterior oblique (RAO), left anterior-posterior oblique (LAO), right posterior-anterior oblique (RPO), and left posterior-anterior oblique (LPO)], abdomen (in the two projections of AP and PA), and pelvis (in the two projections of AP and PA) were investigated. A solid-state dosimeter was used for the measuring of the entrance skin exposure. A Monte Carlo program was used for calculation of effective doses, the risks of radiation-induced cancer, and doses to the gonads related to the different projections. Results of this study showed that PA projection of abdomen, lumbar spine, and pelvis radiographies caused 50%-57% lower effective doses than AP projection and 50%-60% reduction in radiation risks. Also use of LAO projection of lumbar spine X-ray examination caused 53% lower effective dose than RPO projection and 56% and 63% reduction in radiation risk for male and female, respectively, and RAO projection caused 28% lower effective dose than LPO projection and 52% and 39% reduction in radiation risk for males and females, respectively. About dose reduction in the gonads, using of the PA position rather than AP in the radiographies of the abdomen, lumbar spine, and pelvis can result in reduction of the ovaries doses in women, 38%, 31%, and 25%, respectively and reduction of the testicles doses in males, 76%, 86%, and 94%, respectively. Also for oblique projections of lumbar spine X-ray examination, with employment of LAO rather than RPO and also RAO rather than LPO, demonstrated 22% and 13% reductions to the ovaries doses and 66% and 54% reductions in the testicles doses, respectively.


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