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Chemobyl Atomic Power Plant accident is one of the world's most tragic nuclear accidents. It has caused widespread concern because of its radiological consequences. At the same time, it offers an opportunity to learn new lessons. The scientific and technical investigations carried out in the aftermath of the accident are many and encompass an array of complex topics. As the accident's long shadows recede and myths unravel, perspectives sharpen. More light is being shed on the accident's true effects. This review article attempts to collect the results of various studies and present them in an easily comprehensible and succinct manner. Perhaps the pediatric thyroid cancer is the only effect of the disaster established so far beyond doubt.